News from the IAAEU

 

 Announcements

 

Colloquium on Economics at the IAAEU

On Tuesday, December 17th, 2019 (18:00 h, H714, Campus II) the next lecture will take place within the framework of the economic colloquium, to which we cordially invite you. Luise Görges will present the paper "Wage earners, homemakers & gender identity — Using an artefactual field experiment to understand couples’ specialisation choices". Please find further information here.

 

12. Workshop on Labour Economics

The IAAEU and the Chair of Personnel Economics at Trier University are pleased to announce the 12. Workshop on Labour Economics, to be held on the 17th and 18th of April, 2020. Please find further information here.

 

Positions as academic associates

Currently the Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union together with the Chair of Personnel Economics at Trier University will fill two positions for academic staff (doctoral or post-doctoral). Please find further information here.

 


 

Prizes, Distinctions & News

 

Guest researcher Sabrina Genz

Sabrina Genz is a researcher at the Institute for Employment Research and a scholarship holder of the graduate program of the IAB. She is currently writing her doctoral thesis on German workforce adaption to digitalization as an external PhD student at the Chair for Labour and Regional Economics at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg. From November 4-15, 2019, she is a guest researcher at the IAAEU and gives a lecture in the Brownbag-seminar on "Digging into the Digital Divide - Workers’ Exposure to Digitalization and its Consequences for Individual Employment". Her research interests are concentrated on the field of empirical labour market economics with a special focus on the employment and wage effects of technological change.

 


 

Joanna Tyrowicz reports about the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management

Our work on gender board diversity was presented during the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (AOM), which is THE prestigious conference in management sciences. One whole week of meetings, paper development workshops, teaching workshops, q&a sessions with the editors of the main journals and last but not lest, the paper sessions. This year, AOM meeting in Boston attracted 11 000 people!

Our session comprised 8 research projects on the phenomenon of women in the upper corporate echelons. The presenters numbered 16 and hailed from 9 countries and 13 unique institutions. The symposium covered a diversity of topics (e.g., corporate board quotas and codes, director appointment), theories (e.g., social categorization, economics theories), data and methodologies (e.g., interviews and questionnaires of female executives, secondary data from Boardex/Compustat, logistic regression, content analysis), and country environments (i.e., detailed discussion of Iceland, Spain, and the US).

After the presentation, intense discussion started, addressing the policy issues as well as some more or less technical aspects of the presented studies. Maybe it was because we were so comprehensive -- or maybe because the topic continues to be controversial, but our symposium was selected a runner up (finalist) in the Emerald Best International Symposium Award.

 


 

IAAEU participating with several contributions at the current discussion about working time recording jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice

On 14th May 2019 the European Court of Justice decided (Rs. C-55/18 „CCOO“) that the European Union law demands a general obligation to record working time called on for employers. Since the German law does not foresee such obligation so far, the judgement has caused ongoing discussions.

Employees of the IAAEU have participated in these discussions in a number of ways: Immediately after the publication, Dominik Leist commented the judgement with remarks that had been published in the Juris-Praxisreport Arbeitsrecht Nr. 22/2019 as comment 1. A extended investigation about the judgement with regards to its dogmatic backgrounds and the need of implementation into the German law followed and were dealt with by Dr. Thomas Klein and Dominik Leist. Both authors conclude that in order to be compliant with the legal requirements by the European Court of Justice, an adjustment of the German law is necessary. Though there are de lege lata civil right based possibilities for action to implement a system for working time recording for each employee as well as rights for initiative of work councils, but both do not suffice to fulfill the union right obligations. The investigation has now been published in the current issue of Zeitschrift für Europäisches Arbeits- und Sozialrecht (ZESAR), issue 9/2019, S. 365-373.

 


 

Release of examination of the compatibility of the new posting directive with the primary law of the EU

In July 2018 the new European directive 2018/957/EU for the modification of European posting became effective, which aims to improve protection of workers posted throughout the EU. The changes made due to the directive have been highly controversial even during time of the legislative procedure, since some European member states consider current pay gaps as legitimate competitive factors they want to preserve. Hungary and Poland have filed a suit against the passed directive at the European Court of Justice. They believe that the directive is incompatible with the primary law of the EU (constitutional law) and therefore seek an annulment of the directive by the European Court of Justice. In the framework of his empirical research on European posting law, Dr. Thomas Klein has dealt intensively with the pleas in law that have been brought forward by Hungary and Poland. In his opinion the directive 2018/957/EU is compatible with the primary law. The directive can be supported by the legal basis chosen by the legislator and does not violate the freedom to provide services. Therefore, Dr. Klein expects that the annulment will not be granted by the European Court of Justice.

The examination results have been published in issue 16 (p. 673-679) in the Europäischen Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht.

 


 

IAAEU at the informal exchange of legal questions of platform-based work on July 15, 2019, at the University of Salzburg

On July 15, 2019, scientists from Trier and several Austrian universities met at the University of Salzburg for an informal exchange on legal issues of platform-based work. Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, Dr. Thomas Klein, Katrin Treppschuh, and Dominik Leist represented the IAAEU. At the event, short keynote speeches on various aspects of the main topic were presented from both a German and an Austrian perspective, followed by a cross-national discussion. Dr. Thomas Klein gave a lecture on civil law issues of platform-based work. A German perspective on the labor law aspects was provided by Katrin Treppschuh with a contribution on individual law and by Dominik Leist with a presentation on collective labor law issues in platform-based work. Dr. Thomas Spitzlei (University of Trier) examined the social law aspects from a German perspective. The discussion revealed similar problems in German and Austrian law, especially with regard to civil law and individual labor law issues. Collective labor law raises different questions, given the different systems at national level. At the European level, however, these are overlaid by competition law aspects, so that there are also common points of contact in this respect.

 


 

Lecture "Streikmobilisierung auf dem Firmengelände – Arbeitskampfmaßnahmen im Spannungsfeld grundrechtlicher Gewährleistungen"

At the end of the lecture period in the summer semester 2019, the jurisprudential working group invited to a lecture on industrial action law on 11.7.2019. Prof. Dr. Jürgen Treber, Chairman Judge at the Federal Labour Court and Honorary Professor at the University of Trier, first offered a clear overview of the basics of industrial action law and then transferred it to a current case from the BAG jurisdiction on strike mobilisation on the company premises. The subsequent debate provided an opportunity for in-depth discussion of individual issues in this ever-changing field of law.

 


 

Western Economic Association International 94th Annual Conference

Between June 28 and July 02, 2019, Western Economic Association International’s (WEAI) 94th Annual Conference took place in San Francisco, California. Being one of the largest annual economic conferences in the world, this year it hosted 379 sessions in which more than 1308 academic papers were presented. The conference targets no single specific topic but rather features a cross section of today’s main research focuses represented by the participating allied societies that host the conference. Topics ranged from economic history („Capitalism and Slavery“) over issues targeting societies‘ welfare (Demographic, Family, and Health Economics), monetary and trade policy, infrastructure, labor-market oriented topics (Minimum Wages, Income taxation, among others) to rather extraordinary topics like media economics, defense economics, and consumer protection. The main keynote lecture was given by Raj Chetty, with a speech on „Improving equality of opportunity: New insights from big data“.

 

Among the 302 European participants invited to present their research at this year’s conference was IAAEU PhD scholar Jonas Feld. He presented the latest findings from his project on “Linguistic Proximity and Heterogeneity in Returns to Migrant Skills”, which is a co-work together with Joanna Tyrowicz (also IAAEU) and Mariola Pytlikova (CERGE-EI). His talk drew attention from other participating scholars at the conference, providing him not only with many useful and highly valued comments, but also connecting him to other researchers in his field of interest. Further, the possibility to hear a range of interesting presentations and to network with well-known and leading economists made participating in the event have a positive and lasting effect on Mr. Feld. The IAAEU is pleased to have been represented at such an important conference.

 


 

Guest researcher Dr. Clemens Buchen

From 18 to 21 June 2019, Dr. Clemens Buchen will be a guest researcher at the IAAEU again. He is a post-doctoral researcher at the chair of management for economics at the EBS University. Dr. Clemens Buchen works with Dr. Alberto Palermo on further progress on their joint project.

 


 

IAAEU team successful in Trier company run

The IAAEU demonstrated not only scientific, but also sporting ambition and team spirit at the Trier company run on May 29, 2019. The interdisciplinary team of student and scientific staff of the institute was able to place in the middle of the team ranking.

 

Trierer Firmenlauf

 


 

Guest researcher Salwan Saif

Salwain Saif is s a scientific assistant at the chair of Statistics and Empirical Economic Research at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg. He is currently working as a guest researcher at the IAAEU from May 28 to June 6 and among other things he is giving a talk at the Brownbag-seminar concerning „The Effect of Relaxed Dismissal Protection on Small German Establishments”.

 


 

Dr. Thomas Klein as an expert at the lab for platform economy of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

The „Thought Factory of Digital Work Society” of the Federal Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS) conducted two parallel working labs for platform economy from May 20-23, 2019. In both labs a group of an interdisciplinary oriented of experts of science and practice were joined to recommend and develop policy designs form platform economy. The results were presented to BMAS state secretary Björn Böhning on May 23rd and are to be included in further processes of discussion at the BMAS. Dr Thomas Klein, who had been invited by the BMAS to participate in one of the labs, contributed in the discussions with his expertise about designs of platform labour. Dr Klein conducts his post-doctoral research at the IAAEU about the civil fundaments of platform economy and accompanies the DFG research project “Croudsourcing as a new form of labour organisation“.

 


 

Annual Meeting of the Society of Labor Economists

On May 25 and 26, 2019, the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society of Labor Economists took place in Arlington, Virginia. The event is considered one of the most renowned conferences among labor economists worldwide. This year, around 350 researchers not only from the United States, but from all over the world met to discuss current questions in labor economics and personnel economics. The topics of the more than 280 presentations covered both "classical" topics and novel research areas. Central topics were, for example, the effects of automation and robotics on the current and future world of work and the economic causes of populism. Due to the wide variety of topics, the event encouraged economists with different research focuses to exchange ideas. Thus the annual conference offered an optimal opportunity for networking.
IAAEU researcher Sven Hartmann presented his work on the topic "Can Television Reduce Xenophobia? The Case of East Germany". Thanks to the helpful comments of other participants, he was able to gain new insights and ideas for future research projects. The IAAEU is pleased to have been present at such an important conference.

 


 

The effect of the EU Regulation on Posting of Workers on german national law

The European directive (2018/957/EU) to change the directive on posted workers from 1996 (European directive 96/71/EG) was decided in summer 2018. The directive aims to improve the protection of workers posted from one EU Member State to work in another EU Member State. The changes are to be put into practice in national law by all EU countries by July 2020. Dr. Thomas Klein and Alexander Schneider have investigated the revision on European level thoroughly and published their finding in this year’s first issue of the magazine Soziales Recht (SR 01/2019, p. 21-36). In the second part of the investigation, which has been published in the following issue of the mentioned magazine, Dr. Klein and Alexander Schneider present the effects of the changed directive on German laws and offers suggestions for realisations of the directive. The article has already attracted keen interest in the topic (i.e. Zimmer, Arbeit und Recht (AuR) 2019, p. 152 ff.) and may attract even more attention within the framework of the pending legislative procedures to implement the changes in the employee secondment law. Moreover, other countries might find the article just as relevant since Klein and Schneider do not only see design possibilities for the employee secondment law, but also for a new fundament of the tariff loyalty clauses of the countries’ procurement laws.

 


 

Labor Law Practitioner Seminar 2019

From May 9 to May 10, 2019, this year's labor law practitioner seminar under the direction of Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Monika Schlachter took place at the Federal Social Court in Kassel. The seminar was opened by the speaker Dr. Karen Vahl, who in her lecture highlighted the employment law implications of the sale of a corporate division. Dr. Boris Alles then gave an insight into two cases from the practice of industrial constitution law. The seminar was concluded by Prof. Dr. Thomas Weiss, who presented strategic and tactical considerations as well as possible legal constructions of the negotiation results in reconciliation of interests and social compensation plan negotiations on the basis of a practical example. After each lecture, the participants used the opportunity for interesting and sometimes controversial discussions.

 

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Impressions of the Practitioner Seminar

 


 

11. Workshop on Labor Economics 2019 at the IAAEU

Fifty guests in total, many interesting presentations as well as scientific exchange at highest level- this is the final result of the Workshop on Labour Economics, which has taken place on April 12 and 13, 2019 at Trier University.
For the eleventh time has the IAAEU’s economics team offered this conference - which has already established itself in the field of personnel and labor economics in the European sphere. The event was promoted and financially supported by the center of graduates ("Graduiertenzentrum") of Trier University.
In total, 34 researchers- of which 19 were junior scientists- were able to present their latest findings. The topics of this year’s conference ranged from standard topics of personnel economics and labor economics to further related areas. For instance, one presentation covered the impact of job insecurity on health, while another one focused on a possible connection between the extent of regional immigration on life satisfaction of the local population.
Putting its focus on junior scientists, the conference offered a great chance of professional exchange for PhD students. Each of the juniors was assigned to a senior - an experienced researcher who was to evaluate the work process and the final presentation. Subsequently to the presentations, a short discussion by the respective senior enabled the young scientist to attain new perspectives of their field of research. This way ambiguities and methodological issues were discussed and the junior’s work could be qualitatively improved. In addition, the event aimed at forming cooperative relationships between scientists; especially among juniors and seniors.
The award for the best contribution ("Best Paper Award") was handed out twice this year: once for a theoretical essay, which analyzed how financial compensations of high- and low-skilled workers are affected by technological change and intensified use of capital in the production process, both in a short- and long-term perspective. The author of this essay, Michael Knoblach, from the Technical University of Dresden, was visibly happy about receiving the award: “I did not expect this at all. I am certainly honored for receiving such an award for my work!” Nicolas Apfel, from the University of Regensburg was similarly enthusiastic about receiving an award for his contribution, which focused on improving estimation results subject to uncertain causality issues: “I am very happy about receiving this award and I hope that the findings of my research will help other fellow researchers”. Mr. Apfel was given the award not least for his programmed statistical application, with which his research strategy can be transferred easily onto similar methodological problems in other contexts as well.
Yet again, the attractiveness of this event has been emphasized by the high number of attendees this year. In total, there have been 90 applications - more than three per available presentation slot.
We can look back at a successful Workshop on Labor Economics and thank all participants for their involvement and for the success of this event!

 

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Impressions of the WLE 2019

 


 

Marco de Pinto receives Professors Certificate

The self-image of the IAAEU is to conduct interdisciplinary, socially relevant research and thus to provide employees with excellent conditions for further professional steps. One indicator of the success of the promotion of young scientists is the positions that IAAEU employees take on following their work in Trier. A further chapter can now be added to the success story documented in the Institute's annual reports. Marco de Pinto has started his position as Professor of Economics at the IUBH University of Applied Sciences on February 27, 2019. This career step was made possible among other things by the research and teaching activities demanded and promoted by the IAAEU. In his research, Prof. Dr. Marco de Pinto dealt with aspects of labor market economics and international trade as well as the combination of both topics. For this conjunction, Mr. de Pinto, together with colleagues from the ZEW, the University of Münster, and the Aix-Marseille School of Economics, successfully raised third-party funds. In addition, there have been numerous collaborations with researchers, e.g. from the IAAEU and the Universities of Kassel, Constance and Münster. These have resulted in a large number of projects and publications. The paper that achieved most success was "The Impact of Unionization Structures with Heterogeneous Firms and Rent-Sharing Motives", published in the Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Furthermore, Mr. de Pinto has also taught numerous courses, such as Personnel Economics (Bachelor) and Labor Contracts (Master), which have always been very well evaluated by the students. In the case of Prof. Dr. Marco de Pinto, there is one special feature: in order to complete the above-mentioned third-party funding project, he will remain with the IAAEU for some time and will therefore continue to contribute to the research output of the institute. Both sides are looking forward to continuing the successful cooperation.

 


 

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter as co-editor of a book on international labour law

Regulations in community legislation concerning collective employment law are mostly limited to the establishment of the right to information and consultation for employee representatives in companies and corporations. Conversely, collective bargaining and industrial action law have long remained largely unaffected, because of the still unclear delimitation of competences between the community and the member states in this area. With the entry into force of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, the Union has recognized the fundamental right to form and operate a coalition. By referring to the instruments of the Council of Europe (Human Rights Convention and Social Charter), the Charter makes it possible for international labor law to have a greater influence on the Union’s legal order. This provides an opportunity for a systematic discussion of the relationship between Union law and international labor law, accompanied by a discussion of the influences of these legal sources on national law. Apart from individual publications on the subject, the first comprehensive and systematic presentation of international labor law was published by Mohr Siebeck in 2019: Heuschmid/ Schlachter/ Ulber (Hrsg.), Arbeitsvölkerrecht, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2019.

 


 

Guest researcher Dr. Clemens Buchen
From the 12th to 15th March 2019, Dr. Clemens Buchen was again guest researcher at the IAAEU. He is a post-doc researcher at the Chair of Management and Economics at the EBS University. Dr. Clemens Buchen worked with Dr. Alberto Palermo to make progress on their model, which studies the effects of interrelated incentives on team-production outcomes in organizations.

 


 

Professional workshop held by the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in cooperation with the IAAEU

The Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (BMAS) held a range of events within the future-oriented dialog "New Labor – New Security" that dealt with the future of labor and the welfare state. The topics included, among others, the social situation of (solo) self-employed persons. On March 7th, 2019, a professional workshop took place in the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in Berlin, which revolved around the improvement of employment conditions for (solo) self-employed persons. Scholars, experts from relevant associations, and from the BMAS discussed possibilities to improve the (solo) self-employed persons' employment conditions and especially their income situation. Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, who already provided professional advice regarding the preparation of the workshop, moderated the event. Aside from discussing the expansion of labor law-based protection for certain self-employed persons and the advancement of the protection of home workers and quasi-subordinate persons, the participants debated the self-employed persons' possibilities to shape collective agreements. Dr. Thomas Klein, who holds the position of academic consultant at the IAAEU, presented on possible options based in procurement law that could improve pay conditions and proposed the implementation of industry-specific guaranteed minimum payments. Dr. Klein mentioned the German “Arbeitnehmerentsendegesetz” (Law on the Posting of Workers) and the “Mindestarbeitsbedingungengesetz” (Law on Minimum Working Conditions), which has ceased to be in force, as models for such regulations. Further, in the light of the growing importance of self-employed persons offering their services over online platforms (Crowdwork, Gigwork, etc.), he advocated for the operators of such platforms to carry liability in regard to fulfilling claims to remuneration. Here, too, the Law on the Posting of Workers could serve as a model.

 

For Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Monika Schlachter, Dr. Thomas Klein, and Dominik Leist - the IAAEU participants - the professional workshop provided interesting approaches for the current DFG research project “Crowdsourcing as a new form of labor organization”, which deals with the legal status of crowdworkers, of which the majority is self-employed.

 


 

Publishing of a recent examination of the changes to the European Posting of Workers Directive

Dr. Thomas Klein and Alexander Schneider, who are both research associates of the juridical work group of the IAAEU, closely examined legal questions regarding the changes to the European Union’s Posting of Workers Directive (Directive 71/96/EG) that were induced by the Directive 2018/957/EU that came into force in the summer of 2018 in an article that was published in the journal Soziales Recht ((SR), issue 1, 2019, p.21-36). The paper deals especially with the expansion of the catalog of extending working conditions, the extension of universally binding collective agreements that are independent of any sector, and the extension of universally effective as well as representative collective agreements. Additionally, the article covers the new regulations regarding cross-border temporary work, the further approximation of employment conditions after a posting period of one year, and the proposals for a revision of the coordination arrangements in social law that are relevant to the posting of workers (=regulation (EG) 883/2004 and regulation (EG) 987/2009). Klein and Schneider hold the view that the individual changes bring about new features only partially. Other regulations merely confirm the existing legislation that the EJC based on the old directive. According to the authors, the posting directive is still far from an equal treatment in the sense of “same pay for the same work in the same place” after the coming into force of directive 2018/957/EU. In this regard, the changes to the term of remuneration and the possibility of an extension of collective agreements that are not universally binding can be seen as improvements. Although this way of improving the protection of posted workers goes in the right direction, further efforts have to be made to achieve an actually equal treatment of employees and locally hired personnel. Apart from the respective legislators, the EJC could contribute to this by attaching more importance to the free movement of workers in its jurisdiction and by giving them more weight in its considerations regarding restrictions of the freedom to provide services.

 

The paper - that is limited to the level of Union law - is complemented by a second article of the authors that examines the practical implementation of the changes mentioned above into German law. This contribution will be published in issue 2, 2019, of the journal Soziales Recht.

 


 

Lecture "Collective Agreements for Sole Proprietors"

The IAAEU started 2019 off with another exciting lecture for students, staff members and other interested persons. Lawyer Antonius Allgaier (Industriegewerkschaft Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt) gave a lecture on 16th January 2019 regarding "Collective Agreements for Sole Proprietors". By doing so, he presented vividly which challenges the growing number of sole proprietors in the construction industry entails. He especially discussed the issue of training cost levy and the respective BAG verdict from 1st August 2017. As usual, the lecture closed with an open discussion that covered unanswered questions.

 

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Impressionen des Vortrags

 


 

"Changing the perception of diversity"

Understanding diversity is as challenging as understanding what limits its presence in the first place. After some quite shocking insights from research by Alice Wu, the profession of economists in the US has undertaken several actions. First, the American Economic Association (AEA) released a climate survey among its members to research the prevalence of inappropriate behaviors and identify what exactly members themselves define as inappropriate. AEA has also opened EconSpark, an internet forum to divert attention and user traffic from EconJobMarketRumors, with the intention that unlike EJMR, EconSpark will provide a safe and encouraging environment, due to transparency. But irrespectively of these actions, the AEA 2019 meetings in Atlanta have proven to be extremely rich in research that analyzes the roots of discrimination and barriers to diversity. The papers on this particular research agenda complemented the commonly present macro, micro, theory, econometrics, and the always pressing uncertainty about the fate of the US economy. The discussions encompassed not only direct empirical and experimental evidence on discrimination and diversity: during a few panels the top minds of economics discussed how to rid the profession of stimulating but also discouraging hostility during the seminars, extreme drive to competitiveness and other indirect mechanisms which drive women and minorities away from economics.

 

Our presentation concerned the mechanisms behind gender board diversity in small and medium enterprises. It has been previously established that the stocklisted companies with women on supervisory (non-executive) boards tend to achieve greater diversity when nominating the members of the executive (management) boards. Our study shows that this mechanism works only for the stocklisted firms: the companies which are not under public scrutiny of the shareholders have much less women on supervisory boards and much more women on management boards, ceteris paribus.

 


 

 

Review